Thyroid profile 1

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A thyroid panel is a group of tests that may be ordered together to help evaluate thyroid gland function and to help diagnose thyroid disorders. The tests included in a thyroid panel measure the amount of thyroid hormones in the blood. These hormones are chemical substances that travel through the blood and control or regulate the body's metabolism—how it functions and uses energy.

About

TSH is produced by the pituitary gland and is part of the body's feedback system to maintain stable amounts of the thyroid hormones T4 and T3 in the blood. When thyroid hormone levels decrease, the pituitary is stimulated to release TSH. TSH, in turn, stimulates the production and release of T4 and T3 by the thyroid gland. When the system is functioning normally, thyroid production turns on and off to maintain constant blood thyroid hormone levels.

Indications

A thyroid profile may be ordered when symptoms suggest hypo- or hyperthyroidism due to a condition affecting the thyroid.


Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism may include:

  • Weight gain
  • Dry skin
  • Constipation
  • Cold intolerance
  • Puffy skin
  • Hair loss
  • Fatigue
  • Menstrual irregularity in women
Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism may include:
  • Increased heart rate
  • Anxiety
  • Weight loss
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Tremors in the hands
  • Weakness
  • Diarrhoea
  • Puffiness around the eyes, dryness, irritation, or bulging of the eyes

Interpretation

If the feedback system involving the thyroid gland is not functioning properly due to one of a variety of disorders, then increased or decreased amounts of thyroid hormones may result. When TSH concentrations are increased, the thyroid will make and release inappropriate amounts of T4 and T3 and the person may experience symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism. If there is decreased production of thyroid hormones, the person may experience symptoms of hypothyroidism.


The following table summarizes some examples of typical test results and their potential meaning.

TSH T4 T3 Interpretation
High Normal Normal Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism
High Low Low or normal Hypothyroidism
Low Normal Normal Mild (subclinical) hyperthyroidism
Low High or normal High or normal Hyperthyroidism
Low Low or normal Low or normal Nonthyroidal illness; pituitary (secondary) hypothyroidism
Normal High High Thyroid hormone resistance syndrome (a mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor decreases thyroid hormone function)


The above test results alone are not diagnostic but will prompt a health practitioner to perform additional testing to investigate the cause of the excess or deficiency and thyroid disorder. As examples, the most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves disease and the most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto thyroiditis.

Disclaimer

The laboratory test results are NOT to be interpreted as results of a "stand-alone" test. The test results have to be interpreted after correlating with suitable clinical findings and additional supplemental tests/information. Your healthcare providers will explain the meaning of your tests results, based on the overall clinical scenario. Certain medications that you may be currently taking may influence the outcome of the test. Hence, it is important to inform your healthcare provider of the complete list of medications (including any herbal supplements) you are currently taking. This will help the healthcare provider interpret your test results more accurately and avoid unnecessary chances of a misdiagnosis.

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